For the benefit of older boys and girls who are interested in flowers and the adults who may read the book—either to the children or for their own pleasure—this appendix is inserted. It contains in more technical language the facts which should be helpful in identifying and classifying the flowers described.
Adder's-tongue, Yellow: Erythronium americanum. Lily family.
flowers. Solitary, bright yellow, bell-shaped, hanging downward, and nodding from long, slender, upright stems. Perianth of six petal-like parts, spreading at tips, and spotted on the inside near the base with rich brown. There are six stamens, and the style is club-shaped.
leaves. Two of unequal length, fleshy, long, pointed, oval, pale green, and usually marked with dull reddish or purple irregular spots. The flower stalk rises from between them.
habitat and season. Moist, open woods, thickets and brooksides; March to May; from Nova Scotia to Florida, and westward to the Mississippi.
Anemone, Rue: Anemonella thalictroides (Syndesmon thalictroides). Crowfoot family.
flowers. White, sometimes tinted with pink; two or more, smaller than Wood Anemone and having five to ten, usually six, petal-like sepals. Stamens numerous, hair-like, short, yellow-tipped, and clustered around several light green pistils.
leaves. Involucre compound, growing just beneath an umbel of flowers. The true leaves are compound and grow from the base of the plant after the flowers have gone. The flower stalk is tinged with red.
habitat and season. The same as Wood Anemone. Found throughout Eastern United States and west to Kansas and Minnesota.
Anemone, Wood: Anemone quinquefolia. Crowfoot family.
flowers. Solitary, about an inch across, usually white, but sometimes tinted with blue or pink outside. Calyx of four to nine oval, petal-like sepals; no true petals; stamens numerous; many small, green pistils. The stalk is smooth, slender and four to nine inches high.
leaves. Involucre of three long-petioled trifoliolate leaves in a whorl about stem midway between blossom and ground. Lobes irregularly notched and center ones larger than others. Basal leaves similar to involucral leaves, but appearing later than flowering stem.
habitat and season. Woodlands, hillsides and in partial shade; April to June; from Canada to Georgia, and west to Rocky Mountains.
Arbutus, Trailing: Epigcæa repens. Heath family.
flowers. White, pinkish or deep pink, fragrant, in clusters. Calyx of five, dry, overlapping sepals; corolla tubular, spreading into five equal lobes, and hairy; ten stamens; one pistil with a five-lobed stigma.
leaves. Alternate, oval, rounded at base, smooth above and more or less hairy below, evergreen with rusty spots on the older ones. Stalk woody and spreading over ground.
habitat and season. Sandy loam in woods and mossy, rocky places; March to May; from Newfoundland to Florida, west to Kentucky and Northwest Territory.
Arethusa: See Pink, Indian.
Arrowhead, Broad-leaved: Sagittaria latifolia. Water-plantain family.
flowers. There are two kinds, sometimes growing on separate plants and sometimes found on the same plant. The staminate flowers have three white, rounded, spreading petals, and a center of many yellow stamens. They are over an inch across and grow in threes on short stems at regular distances along stalk. The pistillate blossoms are green-centered, and unattractive. The stalk is many-angled, milky-juiced, sometimes slender and sometimes stout, and from a few inches to three or four feet high.
leaves. Those under water are long and grasslike, while those above water are arrow-shaped, sometimes sharp and narrow, and again blunt and broad. They are thick, rubbery and have long stems.
habitat and season. Shallow water and mud; July to September; throughout the country.
Aster, New England: Aster novos-angliæ. Composite family.
flowers. In numerous heads, one to two inches across, clustered at the ends of branches, and varying in color from rarely white to light violet and rich purple. There are thirty to forty narrow ray-florets, surrounding numerous, five-lobed, tubular, yellow disk-florets, set in a sticky, green cup. The branching stalk is rough, stout and two to eight feet high.
leaves. Lance-shaped, toothless, pointed at the tip, heart-shaped at the base and clasp the stalk.
habitat and season. Rich fields and edges of swamps; August to October; from Quebec to South Carolina, west to Northwest Territory, Colorado, Missouri and Kansas.
Aster, Upland White: Aster ptarmicoides. Composite family.
flowers. Ten to twenty, white, ray-florets around a flat center of pale yellow-green disk-florets which turn to light brown at maturity. The flower heads are small, barely an inch across, and form a branching cluster. They are the first of the White Asters to bloom.
leaves. Grayish-green, shining, grasslike, alternating up the stem, and growing smaller near the top until they become mere bracts among the flowers.
habitat and season. Rocky or dry soil; July to September; northern United States, west to Colorado.
Azalea, Wild; or Pinkster Flower: Rhododendron nudiflorum (Azalea nudiflora). Heath family.
flowers. Pink, purplish, or nearly white, one and a half to two inches across, in clusters on a branching shrub two to six feet high. Corolla funnel-shaped with tube narrow and hairy, spreading into five regular lobes; five long, red stamens; one protruding pistil which, like the stamens, is curved.
leaves. Oblong, acute at both ends, hairy on midrib, and usually follow the blossoms.
habitat and season. Moist, rocky woods, dry woods and thickets; April to May; from Maine to Florida, west to Illinois.
Baneberry, White: Aetata alba. Crowfoot family.
flowers. White, small, in oblong, terminal raceme; three to five petal-like, early falling sepals; four to ten spatulate, clawed petals; numerous, long, white stamens; one pistil with broad stigma. Stalk erect, bushy, one to two feet high. leaves. Dark green, two or three times compounded, with margins sharply notched.
habitat and season. Cool, moist woods; April to June; from Nova Scotia to Georgia, west to Missouri and British Columbia.
Bee Balm, American; or Oswego Tea: Monarda didyma. Mint family.
flowers. Deep scarlet, tubular, in circles around a large, round, terminal, dark-red head which is surrounded with a circle of bright reddish, drooping, leafy bracts. Corolla is widest at mouth, two-lipped, and one and a half to two inches long. Two long, anther-bearing stamens protrude. There is one pistil with a two-cleft style. The plant is two to three feet tall, and the stalk is square.
leaves. Oval or oblong, lance-shaped, sharply-toothed, thin, dark green, aromatic, with hairy stems; grow in opposite pairs.
habitat and season. Moist soil, especially near streams in hilly country; July to September; from Canada to Georgia, west to Michigan.
Bindweed, Hedge or Great: See Morning-glory.
Bitterweed: See Goldenrod.
Black-eyed Susan or Coneflower: Rudbeckia hirta. Composite family.
flowers. Flower head large, of twenty to thirty orange-yellow ray-florets, notched at the tips, arranged around a purplish-brown, cone-shaped head of tiny disk-florets at top of hairy, rough, sometimes branched stalk, one to three feet high.
leaves. Long, narrow, oblong to lance-shaped, rough, sparingly notched.
habitat and season. Open, sunny places such as dry fields; May to September; from Canada to Florida, Colorado and Texas.
Bloodroot: Sanguinaria canadensis. Poppy family.
flowers. Pure white, rarely pinkish, one to one and one half inches across at top of smooth, naked stem six to fourteen inches high. There are two sepals and eight to twelve petals tapering at either end. Stamens are numerous aud form a bright, golden center. The flowers close at night, and are short-lived.
leaves. Usually two, sometimes only one, large, rounded, deeply lobed at base, and with one to five or more smaller lobes toward the end, with edges slightly toothed. Upper surface green and veined; under side silvery white and coarsely veined. Flower stem and leaves, when broken, exude orange-red juice, and this is found in quantity in the root.
habitat and season. Rich woods and borders, in colonies; April to May; from Nova Scotia and Ontario south to Florida, Missouri and Arkansas.
Blue Bells of Scotland: See Harebell.
Blue Flag, Larger; or Blue Iris: Iris versicolor. Iris family.
flowers. Large, plumy, violet-blue, variegated with white, green and yellow. Perianth divided into six divisions, the three outer ones spreading and recurved, one of them bearded; the three inner divisions shorter and narrower. All are united in a short tube. There are three stamens under three overhanging petal-like parts of the style. These are notched at the tips and violet colored. The flowers are at the top of a stout, straight stalk two to three feet high.
leaves. Erect, sword-shaped, one half to one inch wide, growing from the root-stalk.
habitat and season. Marshes and wet meadows; May to July; from Newfoundland and Manitoba to Florida and Arkansas.
Bluets or Innocence: Houstonia cærulea. Madder family.
flowers. Very small, light to purplish-blue or white, with yellow centers, and three to seven inches high. Corolla tubular or funnel-shaped, with four oval, pointed spreading lobes; four stamens inserted on tube of corolla, and two stigmas; calyx four-lobed. The flowers grow in crowded masses.
leaves. Tiny, toothless, usually oblong, the lower ones spatulate.
habitat and season. Moist, sunny fields, along road-sides and on wet rocks and banks; April to July; from Ontario to Georgia and Alabama, west to Michigan.
Burdock, Common: Arctium minus. Composite family.
flowers. Tubular florets of varying shades of purple and white, gathered in small heads, and set in a conical, green bur which is covered with sharp, spreading, long-hooked, sticky bristles. Flower heads are on short stems in terminal clusters on a large, coarse, bushy, leafy stalk which is round and grooved, and is two to four feet high.
leaves. Large, the lower ones often a foot long, broadly ovate, toothless, alternating and with hollow stems.
habitat and season. Fields, waste ground and waysides; July to October; throughout the country.
Butter and Eggs or Yellow Toadflax: Linaria vulgaris (Linaria Linaria). Figwort family.
flowers. Light yellow and orange, two-lipped, tubular, with spur at the base; upper lip two-lobed and curves over lower lip, which has three unequal, outcurving lobes, its base having an orange-colored swelling which nearly closes the tube and hides the four unequal stamens and pistil. The flowers hang on short stems from the axils of leaflets, and grow in a terminal spike, one to three feet high.
leaves. Long, narrow, grasslike, tapering at both ends, alternate and clasping the slender, light green stalk, which has a whitish bloom.
habitat and season. Waste land, fields and roadsides; June to October; from Canada to Virginia, west to Nebraska.
Buttercup, Bulbous: Ranunculus bulbosus. Crowfoot family.
flowers. Deep glossy yellow, usually with five petals, but sometimes six or seven; sepals bent downward; stamens numerous, yellow, and grouped around numerous green pistils. The stalk is somewhat hairy, and the root is a bulb.
leaves. Basal leaves divided into several parts, and each division again cut into lobes. They have long, narrow stems.
habitat and season. Fields, roadsides and waste places; May to July; in many parts of the United States and Canada.
Buttonbush or Honeyballs: Cephalanthus occidentalis. Madder family.
flowers. Tiny, white, fragrant, tubular, four-parted, with long, yellow-tipped style protruding. The florets are clustered on a fleshy receptacle forming round heads about an inch across. These are on long peduncles from leaf axils or ends of branches of a shrub three to twelve feet high.
leaves. Oval, entire, opposite or in small whorls.
habitat and season. Beside water, swamps, low ground; June to September; from New Brunswick to Florida, west to Arizona and California.
Calico Bush: See Laurel, American.
Calopogon: See Pink, Grass.
Cardinal Flower or Red Lobelia: Lobelia cardinalis. Lobelia family.
flowers. Intense, vivid red; corolla tubelike, an inch long, split down the upper side, and with five flaring, narrow, pointed lobes bent at right angles, the three middle ones set together and partly separated from the other two, which form the upper lip and are erect. Five stamens are united into a tube around the style. There are two anthers with hairy tufts. The flowers grow in terminal, green-bracted, more or less one-sided racemes on a leafy, hollow stalk two to four feet high.
leaves. Oblong to lance-shaped, irregularly toothed, smooth or slightly hairy, dark green, the upper ones clasping stalk.
habitat and season. Wet or low ground, beside streams; July to September; from Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to Florida, Kansas, Colorado and Mexico.
Carrot, Wild; or Queen Anne's Lace: Daucus Carota. Parsley family.
flowers. Tiny, white, usually five-parted, with minute yellow-tipped stamens, and are densely crowded in many, small, flat wheels that in turn are arranged in a flat-topped disk. The central floret of each disk is often dark and once in a while all of the flowers have a delicate, purplish tinge. The outer flowers are largest. The slender stems of the flowers radiate from a common center at top of hairy stalk one to three feet high.
leaves. Lower ones much cut and divided, while upper ones are less so.
habitat and season. Fields, roadsides and open waste places; June to September; throughout eastern half of United States and Canada.
Chickweed, Common: Stellaria media (Alsine media). Pink family.
flowers. Tiny, white, with five petals so deeply notched as to appear to the careless observer like twice that number; calyx green, five-parted, the sepals being longer and larger than the petals; stamens two to ten; three or four styles.
leaves. Small, oval, pointed, smooth, growing in pairs, the lower ones with short stems, while the upper ones clasp the stalk. The latter is branching, slender and spreads over the ground in tufts.
habitat and season. Damp places almost everywhere throughout the year.
Chickweed, Larger Mouse-ear: Cerastium vulgatum. Pink family.
flowers. Very small, with five deeply notched white petals, five sepals, and twice as many stamens as petals.
leaves. Small and much the shape of ear of a mouse.
habitat and season. Fields and stony places from May to July, and widely distributed. Naturalized from Europe.
Cinquefoil, Common; or Five-finger: Potentilla canadensis. Rose family.
flowers. Yellow, quarter to half an inch across, solitary on slender stems from leaf axils. Calyx hairy and green; five petals, broadly oval and notched at the apex; numerous stamens grouped around numerous pistils to form a head.
leaves. Divided into five coarsely toothed, strongly veined leaflets arranged like the spread fingers of a hand.
habitat and season. Dry fields, banks, hills and road-sides; April to August; from Quebec to Georgia, west to Minnesota.
Claytonia: See Spring Beauty.
Clematis, Wild; or Virgins-bower: Clematis virginiana. Crowfoot family.
flowers. Small, white or greenish-white, about one inch across or less, imperfect, growing in loose clusters at the leaf joints of the stalk which is a climbing vine. Four or five rounding, oblong, petal-like sepals take the place of true petals; stamens numerous, and pistils light green in color. Pistillate and staminate flowers grow on separate plants. Flowers are delicately fragrant. In the fall the pistillate flowers are followed by silvery, silky, curled plumes of withered styles.
leaves. Large, smooth, dark green, divided into three broad, oval, short-stemmed leaflets with margins cut into coarse notches. The leaves are set on long stems and grow in pairs.
habitat and season. Rich, moist soil, along woodland borders, thickets, fences, walls and roadside shrubbery; July to September; from Nova Scotia to Manitoba, and Georgia to Kansas.
Clover, Common Red: Trifolium pratense. Pulse family.
flowers. Tubular corollas set in dense, oval or egg-shaped heads about an inch long, magenta, pink, or rarely whitish. Stalk six inches to two feet high, branching and more or less hairy.
leaves. On long petioles, compounded of three or more oval leaflets marked with a white crescent.
habitat and season. Fields, meadows and roadsides; April to November; throughout Canada and the United States.
Clover, White: Trifolium repens. Pulse family.
flowers. Round heads of white or pinkish, small, tubular florets set erectly in small, five-parted, light green calyxes.
leaves. Divided into three leaflets.
habitat and season. Common in fields and along road-sides; May to December; throughout the country.
Columbine, Wild: Aquilegia canadensis. Crowfoot family.
flowers. Red outside, yellow within, one to two inches long; five spreading, red sepals; five funnel-shaped petals narrowing into long, erect, slender, hollow spurs rounded at the tips; numerous stamens; five projecting pistils. Stalk one to two feet high, branching and wiry.
leaves. Basal leaves on long, slender stems direct from roots, compound, and each leaflet with three or more lobes; upper leaves small, generally rounded and unite with stalk at the branching joints.
habitat and season. Rocky places, rich woodlands; April to July; from Nova Scotia and Northwest Territory south to Florida and Texas.
Coneflower: See Black-eyed Susan.
Corn Cockle or Corn Rose: Agrostemma Githago. Pink family.
flowers. Large, one to three inches across, magenta or purplish-red, with five broad, rounded petals, ten stamens and five styles, the latter opposite the petals and alternating with the long, narrow lobes of the calyx which extend beyond the petals. The flowers are on long, stout stems from a stalk one to three feet high, which is seldom branched, and is covered with fine, white hairs.
leaves. One to four inches long, narrow, pointed, opposite and seated on stem.
habitat and season. Wheat and grain fields and waste places; July to September; throughout United States, but most common in the central and western states. It is a pest.
Cowslip: See Marsh Marigold.
Crane's-bill, Spotted: See Geranium.
Culver's Root or Culver's Physic: Veronica virginica (Leptandra virginica). Figwort family.
flowers. Small, four-lobed, tubular with two protruding stamens and growing crowded in slender, terminal spikes on straight, erect, usually unbranched stalk, two to seven feet high.
leaves. Long, tapering, lance-shaped, sharply-toothed, short-stemmed, in whorls of three to nine.
habitat and season. Rich, moist woods, thickets and meadows; June to September; from Canada to Alabama, west to Nebraska.
Daisy, Common White; or Whiteweed: Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum. Composite family.
flowers. Flower head of twenty to thirty, long, spreading ray-florets surrounding yellow center of densely packed tubular florets set in a green disk at top of smooth stem one to three feet high.
leaves. Sparingly scattered along stalk, usually lance-shaped and coarsely toothed and divided. Basal leaves have long, slender stems.
habitat and season. Meadows, roadsides and waste land; May to November; throughout Canada and United States.
Daisy, Blue Spring; or Robin's Plantain: Erigeron pulchellus. Composite family.
flowers. Daisylike head one to one and a half inches across, growing in terminal, flat-topped cluster at top of thick, light green, hairy and juicy stalk, ten to twenty inches high. Ray-florets light bluish-purple to sometimes a faded white; yellow disk-florets set in a green cup.
leaves. Stem leaves long, narrow, tapering to the point, hairy and partly clasping stalk. They alternate at infrequent intervals. Basal leaves in a flat tuft about root.
habitat and season. Moist ground, hills, grassy fields; April to June; from Nova Scotia and Ontario to Florida and Louisiana, west to Minnesota.
Dandelion, Common: Taraxacum officinale (Leontodon Taraxacum). Composite family.
flowers. A single, yellow head, one to two inches across, composed of a large number of perfect ray-florets in a cup of many narrow, green, leafy bracts at top of smooth, hollow, milky stem.
leaves. Long, narrow, irregularly notched, and clustered around base of stem.
habitat and season. Lawns, fields and grassy waste places the year around and the country over.
Dogwood, Flowering: Cornus florida (Cynoxylon floridum). Dogwood family.
flowers. These appear to be large, with four white or pinkish petals with a notch in the tip of each. These are not petals, but bracts. The true flowers are very small, greenish-yellow, four-parted, and are clustered in the center. They are borne on the twigs of a large shrub or small tree with rough bark and peculiarly hard wood.
leaves. Opposite, oval, with unbroken edges.
habitat and season. Woodlands, rocky thickets and wooded roadsides; April to June; from Maine to Florida, west to Ontario and Texas.
Dutchman's-breeches or Whitehearts: Dicentra Cucullaria (Bicuculla CucuUaria). Fumitory family.
flowers. White, tipped with yellow, nodding in one-sided raceme on smooth stalk five to ten inches high; two scalelike sepals; corolla of four petals in two pairs, one pair forming hollow, flattened, tapered spurs widely separated at tips, and other pair very small, narrow, at right angles to the two longer ones, and extended to form an arch over the six protruding stamens.
leaves. Three times compounded and finely cut, making feathery appearance. They spring from base of stalk on slender petioles.
habitat and season. Rich, rocky woods; April to May; from Nova Scotia to North Carolina, west to Nebraska and Missouri.
Elecampane or Horseheal: Inula Helenium. Composite family.
flowers. Large, yellow, solitary flower heads of many tubular florets set in a large, flat disk, and surrounded with many, long, narrow, curving, spreading ray-florets. The latter are three-toothed. The plant is usually unbranched, two to six feet high.
leaves. Large, broadly oblong, pointed, finely toothed, rough above and downy beneath, and alternate, the lower ones on slender stems, and the upper ones clasping the stalk.
habitat and season. Roadsides, fence rows and fields; July to September; from Nova Scotia to North Carolina, west to Minnesota and Missouri.
Everlasting, Pearly: Anaphalis margaritacea. Composite family.
flowers. Small heads formed of many overlapping dry scales of pearly white, inclosing a number of tiny, yellow, tubular florets. These heads form a rather flat-topped cluster at top of a leafy, round, cottony stem one to three feet high. The tubular florets are of two kinds, staminate and pistillate.
leaves. Toothless, long and narrow, the lower ones being broadest, somewhat lance-shaped and rolled backward. The leaves are grayish-green above and woolly beneath.
habitat and season. Hillsides, dry fields and open woods; July to September; from Newfoundland to Alaska, and North Carolina to California.
Eyebright: See Grass, Blue-eyed.
False Solomon's Seal: See Spikenard, Wild.
Fireweed or Great Willow-herb: Epilobium angustifolium (Chamoenerion angustifolium). Evening Primrose family.
flowers. Usually magenta or pink, about an inch across, borne in spikelike, terminal raceme on smooth, leafy stalk two to eight feet high. There are four, rounding, spreading petals, eight stamens and one pistil with four-lobed stigma.
leaves. Narrow, tapering, willowlike, two to six inches long.
habitat and season. Dry soil, fields and roadsides, especially in burnt-over districts; from June to September; from Atlantic to Pacific, in Canada and United States south to the Carolinas and Arizona.
Five-finger: See Cinquefoil.
Flannel Plant: See Mullein.
Foamflower or False Miterwort: Tiarella cordifolia. Saxifrage family.
flowers. Small, white, feathery, in a close raceme at top of slender, hairy stalk six to twelve inches high. Calyx white, five-lobed; five-clawed petals, ten long stamens, one pistil with two styles.
leaves. Three to seven lobed, the lobes toothed; long-stemmed from root stalk or runners, and broadly heart-shaped at base; downy on veins beneath.
habitat and season. Rich, moist, rocky woods; April to May; from Nova Scotia to Georgia, west to Indiana and Michigan.
Foxglove, Fern-leaved False: Gerardia pedicularia (Dasystoma pedicularia). Figwort family.
flowers. Light yellow, trumpet-shaped, an inch to an inch and a half long, and almost as wide; hairy and sticky on the outside, and set on short, curving stems in the axils of the leaves. Lobes of the corolla are five in number, rounded and spreading; four stamens. The plant is slender, much branched, one to four feet high.
leaves. Light green, soft, downy, deeply cut into many-toothed lobes, much resembling the frond of a fern. They are set in pairs.
habitat and season. Dry woods and thickets; July to September; from Maine and Ontario to Minnesota, Missouri and Florida.
Gentian, Closed; or Bottle Gentian: Gentiana Andrewsii (Dasystephana Andrewsii). Gentian family.
flowers. Intense blue, becoming lighter towards base, in small, crowded, terminal clusters, or set one or two in axils of leaves. The flowers are club-shaped, one to one and one-half inches long, and nearly or quite closed, so that they appear like buds about to unfold. The plant is a leafy stalk, smooth, rather stout and usually unbranched.
leaves. Lance-shaped, with long, tapering point, rather large, toothless, often tinged with brown, arranged in opposite pairs clasping the stalk.
habitat and season. Moist, rich soil in meadows and thickets, and along woodland borders; August to October; from Canada to Georgia and Missouri.
Gentian, Fringed: Gentiana crinita. Gentian family.
flowers. Bright blue, erect, two inches high, vase-shaped, with the four rounded, spreading lobes finely fringed around the top edge; four stamens inserted on corolla tube, and there is one pistil with two stigmas. The closed flowers have a twisted appearance. They close at night and on dull days. The flowers are borne singly on the tips of branches of a smooth, grooved stalk one to three feet high.
leaves. Thin, toothless, heart-shaped at base, tapering to a long point. They clasp the stalk in alternating, opposite pairs.
habitat and season. Moist meadows and woods; September to November; from Quebec to Georgia, west beyond the Mississippi.
Geranium, Wild; or Spotted Crane's-bill: Geranium maculatum. Geranium family.
flowers. Pale magenta, lavender or purplish-pink, one to one and one-half inches across, solitary or in pairs, one to two feet high. Five pointed sepals, five petals woolly at base, ten stamens, and one pistil with five styles. Stalk slender, hairy, grooved and sometimes branched.
leaves. Large, spreading, divided into five or more parts, each of which is again divided into three more or less notched lobes. Basal leaves long-stemmed, the older ones often spotted with white.
habitat and season. Open woods, thickets and shady places; April to July; from Newfoundland to Georgia, west to Missouri.
Goldenrod, Wrinkled-leaved; or Bitterweed: Solidago rugosa. Composite family.
flowers. Tiny, yellow flowers set on one-sided stems which form a spreading, leafy head; ray-florets six to nine, and there are four to seven disk-florets. The stalk is straight, stout, covered with long hairs and crowded with leaves. It may be a foot high or seven feet high.
leaves. Broadly oval to lance-shaped, sharply toothed, hairy, especially on the under side, and slightly wrinkled.
habitat and season. Along roadsides, fences and in fields and waste places; July to November; from Newfoundland and Ontario to Florida and Texas.
Grass, Blue-eyed, Eastern; or Eyebright: Sisyrinchium atlanticum. Iris family.
flowers. Blue to purple with yellow center; a western variety white. Perianth of six spreading divisions, each pointed with a bristle with a notch; stamens three, the filaments united to above the middle; one pistil with tip divided into three parts. Stalk slender, rigid, two-edged, three to fourteen inches high.
leaves. Slender, sharp-pointed, grass-like at base of stalk.
habitat and season. Moist fields and meadows; May to August; from Newfoundland to Virginia, west to British Columbia and eastern slope of Rocky Mountains.
Grass, Deer: See Meadow Beauty.
Grass, Yellow Star: Hypoxis hirsuta. Amaryllis family.
flowers. Bright yellow within, greenish and hairy outside, about one-half inch across; perianth six-parted, widely spreading; stamens yellow; buds form a loose cluster at top of rough, hairy scape two to six inches high, only one or two flowers opening at a time.
leaves. Slender, grasslike, more or less hairy, grooved, rising from around base of and longer than flower stalk.
habitat and season. Dry, open woods, fields and waste places; May to October; from Maine to Gulf of Mexico and far west.
Hardhack or Steeplebush: Spiræa tomentosa. Rose family.
flowers. Tiny, in dense, terminal spikes, on leafy, light brown, woolly stalks two to three feet high. The color is pink or magenta, rarely white, including the stamens, and the corolla has live rounded petals. There are twenty to sixty stamens, and usually five pistils.
leaves. One to two inches long, oval, saw-edged, dark green above and covered with whitish, woolly hairs beneath.
habitat and season. Moist ground; July to September; from Nova Scotia to Georgia, west to Manitoba and Kansas.
Harebell or Blue Bells of Scotland: Campanula rotundifolia. Bluebell family.
flowers. Bright blue, purplish or violet-blue, bell-shaped, one-half inch long or over, hanging downward on hair-like stems from very slender, simple or branching stalk six inches to three feet high. Five slender stamens alternate with five spreading lobes of the corolla, the greenish-white pistil extending beyond. The calyx is green with five narrow parts.
leaves. Basal leaves nearly round, and often wither by the flowering season; the long upper leaves very narrow, smooth and pointed, and seated on stem.
habitat and season. Moist, rocky cliffs, uplands and meadows; June to September; from Labrador to Alaska, south to New Jersey and Pennsylvania, west into the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevadas.
Hepatica: Hepatica triloba (Hepatica Hepatica). Crowfoot family.
flowers. Six to twelve blue, lavender, pinkish or white petal-like sepals; numerous stamens and pistils; three small, sessile leaves under flower which might be mistaken for a calyx.
leaves. Three-lobed, rounded, leathery, evergreen, often mottled with reddish-purple and spreading on the ground.
habitat and season. Woods and hillsides; March to May; from Canada to northern Florida, and Manitoba to Iowa and Missouri.
Honeyballs: See Buttonbush.
Honeysuckle, Coral or Trumpet: Lonicera sempervirens. Honeysuckle family.
flowers. Corolla tubular, slender, slightly spread below the five-lobed limb; red outside, orange-yellow within, and growing in a whorl around terminal spikes on a high twining vine; five stamens and one pistil.
leaves. Opposite, rounded oval, the upper ones united around the stem by their bases to form a cup; evergreen in the South.
habitat and season. Rich, warm soil of hillsides and thickets; April to September; from southern New England to the Gulf States, west to Nebraska.
Horseheal: See Elecampane.
Indian Pipe or Ice Plant: Monotropa uniflora. Heath family.
flowers. Solitary, white, waxy, oblong, bell-shaped, nodding from top of thick, smooth, fleshy, scaly, white stalk four to ten inches high. There are four or five oblong, scalelike petals, and eight to ten hairy stamens.
leaves. There are none, scales taking their place on the flower stalk.
habitat and season. Shaded, moist, rich woods, especially under pine and oak trees; June to August; throughout the country.
Indian Turnip: See Jack-in-the-pulpit.
Innocence: See Bluets.
Iris: See Blue Flag.
Jack-in-the-pulpit or Indian Turnip: Ariscema triphyllum. Arum family.
flowers. Tiny, greenish-yellow, around base of a slender, green, clublike spadix within a green, often whitish or purple-striped spathe with broad, pointed flap above it.
leaves. One or two, large, spreading, three-parted, over-topping flower hood. The plant is one to three feet high.
habitat and season. Moist woodlands and thickets; April to June; from Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Ontario, Minnesota and Kansas.
Joe-pye Weed or Trumpetweed: Eupatorium purpureum. Composite family.
flowers. Dull pink or purple, small, fuzzy appearing, arranged in small groups that form large, terminal clusters on a green or purplish, leafy, often branched stalk, three to ten feet high. The florets are tubular with long, projecting, hairy pistils which give the flower heads a fuzzy appearance.
leaves. Large, oval or lance-shaped, saw-edged, thin, rough-surfaced and arranged in whorls of three to six.
habitat and season. Moist meadows, along streams, and in swamps; August to September; from Canada to Gulf of Mexico, west to Manitoba.
Lady's-slipper, Pink; or Moccasin Flower: Cypripedium acaule (Fissipes acaulis). Orchis family.
flowers. Large, showy, solitary, drooping from end of scape six to twelve inches high. The upper lance-shaped sepal is greenish-purple and the two lower ones are united. Three spreading, curving petals colored like sepals, but narrower and longer; lip an inflated sac, often over two inches long, slit down the middle and folded inward. This is pale magenta, veined with darker pink, the upper part of interior crested with long, white hairs, and open end of pouch nearly closed with curious, broad, sterile anther which shields fertile anthers and stigma beneath.
leaves. Two, large, thick, pointed, oval, slightly hairy and many ribbed, clasping scape at base.
habitat and season. Rocky or sandy woods; May to June; from Canada to North Carolina, west to Minnesota and Kentucky.
Lady's-slipper, Showy: Cypripedium hirsutum (Cypripedium regince). Orchis family.
flowers. One, two or three at top of stout, leafy stalk. The large, pouchlike lip an inch or more long is white, stained with purplish-pink spots and stripes; sepals and petals white, and latter narrower than former.
leaves. Three to eight inches long, downy, pointed oval, wavy-edged, ribbed, alternating and clasping the stalk.
habitat and season. Bogs and rich, low, wet woods; June to September; from Nova Scotia to Georgia, west to the Mississippi.
Lady's-slipper, Small Yellow: Cypripedium parviflorum. Orchis family.
flowers. Lip or pouch bright yellow, more or less marked with purple stripes or blotches; petals longer and more twisted than those of Large Yellow Lady's-slipper; sepals narrow and curling, sometimes purple or claret-colored.
leaves. Oval or lance-shaped, alternate on slender stalk one to two feet high.
habitat and season. Bogs and moist, hilly woodlands; May and June; from Canada south to Missouri and Georgia, west to Washington.
Ladies'-tresses, Nodding: Spiranthes cernua (Ibidium cernuum). Orchis family.
flowers. Small, waxy, white or yellowish, fragrant, without a spur, the two side sepals spreading, while the upper one forms an arch with the petals. The spreading lip has a crinkled edge. They grow in threes to form a twisted, terminal spike on a stalk six inches to two feet high.
leaves. Narrow and grasslike from the base of the stalk, usually disappearing before the flowering season.
habitat and season. Wet meadows and grassy swamps; July to October; from Nova Scotia to Gulf of Mexico, west to Ontario, Minnesota and South Dakota.
Lambkill: See Laurel, Sheep.
Laurel, American or Mountain; or Calico Bush: Kalmia latifolia. Heath family.
flowers. Pink to white on short, sticky stems, in large, showy, terminal clusters; corolla an inch or less across, bowl-shaped with five low points, and ten projections on outside; ten stamens arched over so that each anther is held in a tiny pocket formed by the outside projections; one pale green pistil.
leaves. Oblong to elliptic, pointed at both ends, smooth, shining, evergreen, alternate, or in pairs, or in terminal clusters. The stiffly branched shrub is two to twenty feet high.
habitat and season. Rocky, hilly woods; May to June; from New Brunswick and Ontario to Gulf States, west to Ohio.
Laurel, Sheep; or Lambkill: Kalmia angustifolia. Heath family.
flowers. Similar to those of the American Laurel, but very much smaller, usually crimson-pink with purple tips and pink stamens and pistils. They grow in loose, round clusters just below or on one side of the new light green, erect leaves.
leaves. Oblong or lance-shaped, old ones drooping, evergreen, frequently marred with rusty spots, and having yellowish midrib and short stem. The plant is shrubby, six inches to three feet high.
habitat and season. Moist soil in swamps or hillside pastures; June to July; from Canada to Georgia.
Lily, Large Yellow Pond; or Spatter-dock: Nymphœa advena. Water Lily family.
flowers. Large, sometimes three and a half inches across, yellow or greenish outside, yellow within, floating on surface of water or standing above it. The six apparent petals are really concave sepals, and within this yellow cup are the true petals which are fleshy, oblong and stamenlike. They are numerous and comparatively short. The flat top of the great stigma is composed of many carpels and bears a star-like design with twelve to twenty-four rays.
leaves. Six to twelve inches long, heart-shaped at base, with rounded tip, smooth, shining, leathery, floating on water or standing just above it.
habitat and season. Shallow water; April to September; from New Brunswick to Florida, west to Rocky Mountains.
Lily, Meadow; or Wild Yellow Lily: Lilium canadense. Lily family.
flowers. Yellow to orange-red, deeper within and speckled with dark reddish-brown spots, bell-shaped, the six spreading, pointed, petal-like parts two to three inches long with tips curving backward; six stamens with reddish-brown anthers; one pistil having three-lobed stigma. The flowers nod on long, slender stems from top of a leafy stalk two to five feet high.
leaves. Lance-shaped to oblong, usually in whorls of from four to ten at regular intervals on stalk; upper leaves sometimes alternate.
habitat and season. Low meadows, moist fields and swamps; June to July; from Nova Scotia to Ontario, south to Georgia, Alabama and Missouri.
Lily, Red, Wood or Philadelphia: Lilium philadelphicum. Lily family.
flowers. One to five, large, reddish-orange or flame colored, erect on separate stems from top of stalk. The six petal-like parts of the perianth are broad towards the end and taper to slender, stemlike bases; they are spotted with dark purple and tinged with yellow. The six long, pink stamens and single club-shaped pistil with three-lobed stigma have brown tips.
leaves. Lance-shaped, in whorls of three to eight, at regular intervals along stalk.
habitat and season. Dry woods, thickets and borders; June to July; from Maine to Ontario, south to Carolinas and West Virginia.
Lily, Sweet-scented White Water: Castalia odorata. Water Lily family.
flowers. Pure white, or slightly tinged with pink, three to eight inches across, deliciously fragrant, floating on surface of water; calyx of four sepals, green outside and lined with white or pinkish-white; petals numerous, pointed oblong, arranged alternately in several rows, graduating toward the center into numerous yellow stamens; pistil compound with spreading and projecting stigmas.
leaves. Large, nearly round, with cleft at base; rich, shining green above, with underside reddish and more or less hairy. The leaves, commonly called pads, float on the water at ends of long, slender, rubbery stems like the stems of the flowers.
habitat and season. Ponds, lakes and slow streams; June to September; from Nova Scotia to Gulf of Mexico, west to the Mississippi.
Liver-leaf: See Hepatica.
Lobelia, Great or Blue: Lobelia syphilitica. Lobelia family.
flowers. Bright blue, fading to pale blue, an inch long, tubular, split on one side, two-lipped, and irregularly five-lobed. The lobes are shorter than in the Red Lobelia, and the stamen tube does not stand out beyond the corolla. They form a long, dense, terminal spike on a rather stout, leafy, somewhat hairy stalk, one to three feet high.
leaves. Alternate, oblong, irregularly toothed, two to six inches long, upper ones clasping the stalk.
habitat and season. Moist, wet soil, along streams; July to October; from Maine and Ontario to Georgia and Louisiana, west to Kansas.
Lobelia, Red: See Cardinal Flower.
Lupine: See Pea.
Mallow, Swamp Rose; or Mallow Rose: Hibiscus Moscheutos. Mallow family.
flowers. Very large, four to seven inches across, a beautiful rose-pink, or sometimes white, and often with crimson center. Five large petals are rounded, wedge-shaped and strongly veined; stamens united in a tube which incloses a long pistil split into five flat-headed tips. The flowers grow singly or in small clusters on short stems at top of a stout, leafy stalk four to seven feet high.
leaves. Oval, tapering to a slender point, three to seven inches long, smooth above, covered with a soft, whitish down beneath, some or all lobed at middle.
habitat and season. Along rivers, lakes and in brackish marshes; August to September; from Massachusetts to Gulf of Mexico, and in the Great Lake region.
Mandrake: See May Apple.
Marsh Marigold or Cowslip: Caltha palustris. Crowfoot family.
flowers. Shining yellow, one to one and one-half inches across in small groups. Five or more oval, petal-like sepals; no petals; stamens numerous. Stalk stout, smooth, hollow and branching, one to two feet high.
leaves. Large, rounded, broad, heart-shaped at base, rich, shining green.
habitat and season. Wet ground, low meadows, swamps, river banks and ditches; April and May; Canada to South Carolina, west to Rocky Mountains.
May Apple or Mandrake: Podophyllum peltatum. Barberry family.
flowers. Two inches across, white, with six to nine slightly concave, ovate petals, beautifully marked with fine veins. Stamens as many as petals, or often twice as many, have prominent yellow anthers, and are arranged around a large, thick pistil. The flowers hang from between a pair of terminal leaves at top of stalk from one to one and a half feet high.
leaves. Two sets, one on flower stalk and one growing separately, the latter the largest, often measuring a foot in diameter. They are smooth, glossy and divided into seven to nine arrow-shaped lobes. The lobes are two-cleft and toothed at the apex. Ribs and veins are conspicuous. They appear like a closed umbrella when they first come up.
habitat and season. Rich, moist woods; in May; from Quebec to Gulf of Mexico, west to Ontario and Minnesota.
Meadow Beauty or Deer Grass: Rhexia virginica. Meadow Beauty family.
flowers. Purplish-pink, one to one and one-half inches across, in small clusters on slender, leafy branches which spring in pairs from the angles of the leaves. The plant is one to one and one-half feet high, and the stalk is square and more or less hairy. There are four rounded, spreading petals joined for half their length; eight equal, prominent stamens; one pistil. They usually open one at a time.
leaves. Pointed oval, finely toothed, thin, and arranged in alternating, opposite pairs.
habitat and season. Sandy swamps or near water; July to September; from Maine to Florida, west to Illinois and Missouri.
Meadowsweet: Spiræa latifolia. Rose family.
flowers. Small, white, or pink-tinted in fleecy terminal pyramids, two to four feet high; calyx five-lobed; corolla with five slightly curved, rounding petals; many projecting rosy stamens. Stalk simple or bushy, smooth and usually reddish.
leaves. Oval or oblong, saw-edged and alternating.
habitat and season. Low meadows, swamps and ditches; June to August; from Newfoundland to Georgia, west to Rocky Mountains.
Milfoil: See Yarrow.
Milkweed, Common: Asclepias syriaca. Milkweed family.
flowers. Large, broad umbels, each flower set on a short, slender stem, the stems springing from the same point on a short, drooping stalk that grows from the axils of the upper leaves; corolla deeply five-clefted, the segments turning backward and varying from green through white to dull purple from base to tip, purple predominating; fragrant.
leaves. Opposite, oblong, rather thick, midrib prominent, margin entire, upper surface smooth and grayish-green, while under side is downy and silvery; four to nine inches long.
habitat and season. Roadsides, fields and waste places; June to September; from New Brunswick south to North Carolina, and far westward.
Milkweed, Swamp: Asclepias incarnata. Milkweed family.
flowers. Purplish-red or pinkish, arranged in several loose, terminal, flat-topped clusters on a smooth, slender, branched stalk two to four feet high. Lobes of corolla oblong, and hoods shorter than inclosed, incurved horns.
leaves. Long, lance-shaped, narrowed toward the base, where they are sometimes heart-shaped.
habitat and season. Swamps and wet places; July to September; from New Brunswick to Louisiana, west to Kansas.
Mint, Wild: Mentha arvensis, var. canadensis. Mint family.
flowers. White or slightly pinkish, tiny, tubular with four lobes, growing in whorls in the leaf axils. The odor is like pennyroyal. Stalk slender, erect, sometimes branched, more or less hairy, six inches to two feet high.
leaves. Opposite, oblong to oblong lanceolate, sharply toothed, one to three inches long.
habitat and season. Marshes, swamps and moist soil; July to October; from New Brunswick to British Columbia, south to Virginia and New Mexico.
Miterwort, False: See Foamflower.
Moccasin Flower: See Lady's-slipper, Pink.
Morning-glory, Wild; or Hedge or Great Bindweed: Convolvulus septum. Morning-glory family.
flowers. Large, bell-shaped, about two inches long, light pink with white stripes or all white, on long peduncles from leaf axils; corolla five-lobed, the five stamens inserted on its tube. The main stem or stalk is three to ten feet long, round, leafy, generally smooth, but sometimes minutely hairy, and trails over bushes or along ground.
leaves. Triangular or arrow-shaped, two to five inches long, on slender petioles.
habitat and season. Hedges, walls, thickets and fields; June to September; from Nova Scotia to North Carolina, west to Nebraska.
Mullein, Great; or Flannel Plant: Verbascum Thapsus. Figwort family.
flowers. Light yellow, wheel-shaped with five unequal, rounded, spreading lobes; five protruding, unequal, orange-tipped stamens, three of which are fuzzy or bearded; one green pistil. The flowers are crowded in long, club-shaped spikes, and open two or three at a time for a day only. The plant is two to seven feet high and very woolly.
leaves. Large, thick, velvety, oblong and sharply pointed, the basal ones growing in a rosette around the foot of stalk, and those on stalk alternating and clasping it.
habitat and season. Dry fields and waste land; June to September; from Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Kansas and in California.
New Jersey Tea: Ceanothus americanus. Buckthorn family.
flowers. Tiny, white or creamy, in dense, oblong, terminal clusters; five petals, hooded and long-clawed; five stamens with long filaments.
leaves. Pointed-oval, set alternately on branches of shrubby stalk two to three feet high.
habitat and season. Dry, open woods and thickets; May to July; from Ontario and Manitoba to Florida and Texas.
Orchis, Yellow-fringed: Habenaria ciliaris (Blephariglottis ciliaris). Orchis family.
flowers. Orange-yellow, closely set in a large, terminal spike on a slender, leafy stalk a foot to three feet high; sepals oval or almost circular, two spreading, while the upper one forms a sort of hood; petals smaller and generally toothed. A long, drooping, oblong lip is fringed and forms a slender spur an inch to an inch and a half long.
leaves. Lance-shaped, long and pointed, becoming bract-like leaflets as they approach the blossoms.
habitat and season. Moist meadows and sandy bogs; July to August; from New England to Ontario, south to the Gulf States.
Oswego Tea: See Bee Balm.
Pea, Wild; or Wild Lupine: Lupinus perennis. Pulse family.
flowers. Vivid blue, butterfly-shaped, the corolla having wings, keel and standard, and being about one-half inch long. They are borne in a long, terminal spike on a round, hairy, leafy, erect and branching stalk one to two feet high, and are sweet-scented.
leaves. Wheel-shaped, composed of seven to eleven long narrow leaflets, radiating from stem, and are light green and toothless.
habitat and season. Dry, sandy places and hillsides; May to June; throughout eastern half of the United States and Canada.
Pickerel Weed: Pontederia cordata. Pickerel Weed family.
flowers. Bright purplish-blue, tubular, slightly curved, unpleasantly scented. The perianth is two-lipped, the upper lip broad and erect with two yellow spots at base of middle lobe; six stamens, three opposite each lip. The flowers are crowded in a dense spike at top of erect, stout, fleshy stalk one to four feet high, but seldom over two feet above water.
leaves. One, smooth, thick, leathery, dark green, arrow or heart-shaped, four to eight inches long, midway on flower stalk.
habitat and season. Shallow water; June to October; in eastern half of the United States.
Pink, Grass; or Calopogon: Calopogon pulchellus (Limodorum tuberosum). Orchis family.
flowers. Three to fifteen, purplish-pink, sweet-scented, in loose, terminal spike from twelve to eighteen inches high; sepals and petals similar, pointed-oval in shape, separated and spreading. A long, upright lip is pale pink with white spots, and is heart or wedge-shaped at summit. It has a dense beard of long, yellow, orange and rose, club-shaped hairs which appear like stamens. The petal-like pistil is long, slender, curving and three-lobed.
leaves. Solitary, long, grasslike, direct from bulb.
habitat and season. Swamps, bogs and low meadows; June to July; from Newfoundland to Florida, west to the Mississippi.
Pink, Indian; or Arethusa: Arethusa bulbosa. Orchis family.
flowers. Bright purple-pink, one to two inches long, solitary at end of smooth stalk five to ten inches high. Sepals and petals partly united and nearly alike; a conspicuous drooping lip is toothed or fringed, blotched with purple, and with three white, hairy crests.
leaves. One, many ribbed and grasslike, appearing after the flower.
habitat and season. Bogs and swamps; May to June; from Canada to North Carolina, west to Indiana.
Pinkster Flower: See Azalea.
Pipsissewa: See Wintergreen, Spotted.
Pitcher Plant: Sarracenia purpurea. Pitcher Plant family.
flowers. Single, two inches across at top of scape one to two feet tall, deep reddish-purple, varying sometimes to partly greenish; five sepals and five overlapping petals which inclose a yellowish, umbrella-shaped style with five rays ending in five hooked stigmas; stamens indefinite.
leaves. Hollow, pitcher-shaped, their margins being folded together and leaving a broad wing or keel. They curve outward and upward from the root, are yellowish-green lined with purple, and the open end is hooded. They are smooth outside, but covered with fine hairy bristles pointing downward on inside. Usually they are half filled with water.
habitat and season. Peat bogs and mossy swamps; May to June; from Labrador to the Rocky Mountains and south to Florida.
Polygala, Fringed: See Wintergreen, Flowering.
Poppy, California: Eschscholtzia californica. Poppy family.
flowers. Large, with four widely flaring petals of golden yellow, turning to orange at the base. Stamens many and long, with long anthers. The flower closes at night and on dull days.
leaves. Irregular in shape, finely cut into many divisions, and having long, flattened petiole clasping the stem at its base.
habitat and season. Foothills and desert regions; February to April; in many parts of California. Grown as a garden flower in the East.
Primrose, Evening: Œnothera biennis. Evening Primrose family.
flowers. Yellow, fragrant, one to two inches across, in leafy-bracted terminal spikes at top of erect stalk one to five feet high. The flowers open at evening, only two or three at a time, and wither the following day. There are four flaring, heart-shaped petals, and eight long, yellow-tipped, spreading stamens.
leaves. Lance-shaped, alternating and mostly seated on stem.
habitat and season. Roadsides, thickets and dry fields; June to October; from Labrador to Gulf of Mexico, west to Rocky Mountains.
Queen Anne's Lace: See Carrot.
Rhododendron, American or Great: Rhododendron maximum. Heath family.
flowers. In large, showy, terminal clusters which nearly cover a tall, branching shrub or tree, as it sometimes grows forty feet high; corolla bell-shaped with five spreading, oval lobes, and sometimes two inches across; color rose, varying to white, greenish in throat, and spotted with yellow or orange; ten spreading stamens and one pistil.
leaves. Evergreen, drooping in winter, dark green, leathery, long-oblong, four to ten inches in length, smooth and shining.
habitat and season. Wooded hillsides and mountains near streams; June to July; from Nova Scotia to Georgia, west to Ohio.
Robin's Plantain: See Daisy, Blue Spring.
Rose, Corn: See Corn Cockle.
Rose, Mallow: See Mallow.
Rose, Pasture: Rosa humilis (Rosa virginiana). Rose family.
flowers. Fragrant, pink, usually solitary, with five curved, heart-shaped petals around numerous yellow stamens, which in turn surround a cluster of pistils. Calyx has five long, spreading divisions with outer ones lobed.
leaves. Usually five thin, oval or sharply pointed, irregularly toothed leaflets make up the compound leaf. Slender, straight thorns, usually in pairs at base of leaf stem. This is the commonest of the wild Roses, and is branching and bushy, six inches to six feet high.
habitat and season. Dry, rocky soil; May to July; from Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Oklahoma.
Rose, Swamp or Wild: Rosa Carolina. Rose family.
flowers. Pink, two to three inches broad with five curved, heart-shaped petals and numerous yellow stamens loosely grouped.
leaves. Of five to nine finely toothed leaflets, varying from oval to oblong, on bushes one to eight feet high, usually with hooked or curved thorns.
habitat and season. Swamps and low ground; June to August; from Atlantic Coast west to Minnesota and Mississippi.
Saxifrage, Early: Saxifraga virginiensis (Micranthes virginiensis). Saxifrage family.
flowers. White, small, perfect, in loose panicle at top of sticky, hairy stalk four to twelve inches high. Calyx five-lobed; five petals; ten stamens; one pistil with two styles.
leaves. Obovate, toothed, rather thick, narrowed into spatulate-margined petioles, and clustered at base of stalk.
habitat and season. Rocky woodlands and hillsides; March to May; from New Brunswick to Georgia, and west to Minnesota.
Skullcap, Larger or Hyssop: Scutellaria integrifolia. Mint family.
flowers. Bright blue, an inch long. Calyx two-lipped, the upper lip having a helmetlike protuberance; corolla two-lipped, the lips of about equal length. The flowers are grouped opposite each other at top of a stalk never more than two feet high. The latter is square and covered with fine down.
leaves. Rounded, oblong, with notched edges, and covered with fine down.
habitat and season. In tall grass of roadsides and meadows, and undergrowth of woods and thickets; May to August; from southern New England to Gulf of Mexico, west to Texas.
Skunk Cabbage: Symplocarpus fætidus (Spathyema fœtida). Arum family.
flowers. Tiny, perfect, ill-smelling, greenish-yellow to purplish-brown florets thickly scattered over rounded, fleshy spadix within purplish-brown to greenish-yellow, usually mottled spathe in shape of hood. Appear before
leaves. Large, broadly ovate, often a foot across, with petioles slightly grooved.
habitat and season. Swamps and wet ground; February to April; from Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Minnesota and Iowa.
Snakehead: See Turtlehead.
Sneezeweed: See Sunflower, Swamp.
Spatter-dock: See Lily, Yellow Pond.
Spikenard, Wild; or False Solomon's Seal: Smilacina racemosa (Vaguer a racemosa). Lily family.
flowers. In dense terminal raceme, white or greenish, small, with perianth of six spreading segments; six stamens; one pistil. Leafy stalk one to three feet high.
leaves. Oblong or lance-shaped, three to six inches long, alternate along stem and finely hairy beneath.
habitat and season. Moist woods and thickets; May to July; from Nova Scotia to Georgia, and British Columbia to Arizona.
Spring Beauty or Claytonia: Claytonia virginica. Purslane family.
flowers. Several in terminal, loose raceme. Two ovate sepals; five white petals veined with pink or all pink; five stamens, one inserted in base of each petal; style three cleft.
leaves. Linear to lance-shaped. Upper ones shorter than lower ones. The latter are two to three inches long and vary in width.
habitat and season. Moist woods, low meadows; March to May; from Nova Scotia and far westward, south to Georgia and Texas.
Steeplebush: See Hard hack.
Strawberry, Wild or Virginia: Fragaria virginiana. Rose family.
flowers. White, loosely clustered at end of erect, hairy scape, usually shorter than leaves. Calyx deeply five cleft, with five bracts between divisions. Five rounded, short-clawed, white petals; stamens numerous, orange-yellow; center green and cone-shaped.
leaves. Compound, having three, broad, wedge-shaped, hairy, toothed leaflets.
habitat and season. Dry fields, woodland edges, road-sides; April to June; from New Brunswick to Louisiana, west to South Dakota.
Sunflower, Swamp; or Sneezeweed: Heleniun autumnale. Composite family.
flowers. Large flower heads on long stems in loose, spreading, terminal clusters on a stout, branching stalk two to six feet high; ten to eighteen three-clefted, yellow, spreading, drooping ray-florets surround a yellow, or yellowish-brown disk of tubular florets.
leaves. Bright green, pointed, lance-shaped or oblong, toothed, alternating. When dried and powdered they produce violent sneezing; hence, one of the common names.
habitat and season. Banks of streams, swamps and wet ground; August to October; from Quebec to Northwest Territory, south to Florida and Arizona.
Sunflower, Tall or Giant: Helianthus giganteus. Composite family.
flowers. Usually several flower heads, one and a half to over two inches broad, on long, rough, terminal stems; ten to twenty pale yellow ray-florets surround numerous, yellowish disk-florets in a green half-round cup. The stalk is purplish stained, rough, hairy, three to twelve feet high, and usually branched near the top.
leaves. Lance-shaped, tapering to a point, rough above, and rough-hairy beneath, sometimes entire, but often finely toothed; some have short stems, but most of them clasp the stalk.
habitat and season. Wet meadows, low, damp thickets, swamps; August to October; from Maine and Ontario to Northwest Territory, south to Florida and Louisiana.
Thistle, Common; or Roadside Thistle: Cirsium lanceolatum. Composite family.
flowers. Many small, tubular, purple florets in a spreading and rounding head about an inch and a half across, gathered in a green egg-shaped cup covered with long, sharp, white prickles. The flower heads are usually solitary on the ends of the branches of a round, leafy stalk three to five feet high, and covered with fine, whitish wool.
leaves. Long, dark green, lance-shaped, with margins deeply and irregularly cut, an exceedingly sharp needle-like point on the tip of each projection, upper surface rough and prickly, while under surface is covered with a thick mat of fine, brownish hairs when young.
habitat and season. Fields, waste places and roadsides; July to November; from Newfoundland to Georgia, west to Minnesota and Missouri.
Thoroughwort, Hyssop-leaved: Eupatorium hyssopifolium. Composite family.
flowers. Arranged in heads, about a third of an inch high, and containing about five tubular, white flowers. The flower heads form a flat-topped panicle on a rather bushy stalk one to two feet high.
leaves. Narrow, linear or lanceolate, the lower ones sometimes toothed, acute at base.
habitat and season. Dry fields; August and September; from Massachusetts to Florida and Texas.
Toadflax, Yellow: See Butter and Eggs.
Trillium, Nodding; or Nodding Wake-robin: Trillium cernuum. Lily family.
flowers. Solitary, white or sometimes pinkish, nodding or drooping from peduncle until nearly or quite hidden under the leaves; three petals half an inch long or over, curving backward at maturity; sepals about as long as petals.
leaves. Very broad, tapering at points, in whorl of three at top of rather slender stalk eight to twenty inches high.
habitat and season. Damp woods; April to June; from Nova Scotia to Georgia and Missouri, west to Ontario and Minnesota.
Trillium, Painted: Trillium undulatum. Lily family.
flowers. Solitary, waxy- white, with stripes of deep pink or wine color at base of petals; three long, pointed, wavy-edged petals widely spreading; three narrow, lance-shaped sepals. The flower has a short stem at top of slender, smooth, green stalk from eight inches to two feet high.
leaves. Egg-shaped, with long, tapering points, rounded base and short stem.
habitat and season. Cool, damp, shady woods; May and June; from Nova Scotia to Georgia and Missouri, west to Ontario and Wisconsin.
Trillium, Purple; or Ill-scented Wake-robin: Trillium erectum. Lily family.
flowers. Solitary, dull purple or purplish-red; three flaring, pointed, green sepals alternating with three pointed, oval petals; six stamens with anthers longer than filaments; one pistil spreading into three short, recurved stigmas.
leaves. Broadly ovate and pointed, arranged in a whorl of three which droop at top of stalk.
habitat and season. Rich, moist woods; April to June; from Nova Scotia to North Carolina, west to Manitoba and Missouri.
Trillium, White; or Large-flowered Wake-robin: Trillium grandiflorum. Lily family.
flowers. Solitary, large, waxy-white, with three thin, broad, pointed and veined petals larger and longer than the three spreading, green sepals. The petals curve outward and the flower is borne on a short stem springing from the center of the leaves, which grow in a whorl of three at top of single, smooth, stout stalk.
leaves. Large, broad, egg-shaped, tapering to a sharp point, and stemless.
habitat and season. Damp, rich woods; May and June; from Canada to Florida, west to Minnesota and Missouri.
Trumpetweed: See Joe-pye Weed.
Turtlehead or Snakehead: Chelone glabra. Fig wort family.
flowers. Pure white or tinged with pink, about an inch long, growing in terminal cluster on smooth, erect, leafy stalk one to three feet high. Corolla broadly tubular and two-lipped, the broad, arched upper lip creased and notched in the middle, the lower lip three-lobed at apex. The throat is filled with woolly hairs, and the five woolly stamens and single pistil are almost hidden by the lips.
leaves. Lance-shaped, sharply toothed, tapering to a long point, narrowed at base, and set on stalk in opposite pairs.
habitat and season. Swamps, ditches and beside water; July to September; from Newfoundland to Florida, west to Manitoba and Kansas.
Violet, Bird's-foot: Viola pedata. Violet family.
flowers. Largest of the Violets, velvety, somewhat pansy-shaped. Five petals, either all lilac-purple or with the two upper ones dark purple and the lower ones a lighter shade. The lower petal is grooved and has a flat spur; upper petals curve backward. Stamens in center tipped with bright orange.
leaves. Cut into five to eleven narrow parts. Divisions of a leaf are so arranged as to suggest the print of a bird's foot.
habitat and season. Dry fields and hillsides from April to June; from southern Ontario to Florida, west to Minnesota.
Violet, Common Blue or Meadow: Viola papilionacea. Violet family.
flowers. Vary greatly in color from pale violet to light purple, and occasionally are striped. They also vary greatly in size. There are five petals, the lower one spurred, and the two lateral ones prettily bearded. Orange-tipped stamens form a golden heart.
leaves. Large, heart-shaped with prominent rib and scalloped edges. Stem grooved, and the surface is sometimes covered with very fine hairs.
habitat and season. Damp woods and meadows; April to June; from Nova Scotia to Georgia, west to Minnesota.
Violet, Sweet White: Viola blanda. Violet family.
flowers. One of the smallest of the Violets; sweet-scented with Gve white petals, the upper pair often long, narrow and recurved, the lower pair veined with purple; two to five inches high.
leaves. Yellow-green, smooth, round, heart-shaped, with finely toothed margins.
habitat and season. Damp places; April to May; from New Brunswick to Louisiana, and many parts of the west, including California.
Virgin's-bower: See Clematis.
Wake-robin: See Trillium.
Whitehearts: See Dutchman's-breeches.
Whiteweed: See Daisy, Common.
Willow-herb, Great: See Fireweed.
Wintergreen, Flowering; or Fringed Polygala: Polygala paucifolia. Milkwort family.
flowers. Purplish-rose, one-half inch long, one to four on short peduncles from among upper leaves and orchid-like in appearance. Five unequal sepals, two of which are winglike and highly colored like petals; petals form a long, slender tube, the lower ones being extended and beautifully fringed; six stamens and one pistil are inclosed in this tube.
leaves. Clustered at top of stalk four to seven inches high. They are pointed oval or oblong, and narrowed into short stems. They become reddish in winter.
habitat and season. Rich, moist woods; May to July; from Canada to Georgia, west to Illinois.
Wintergreen, Spotted; or Spotted Pipsissewa: Chimaphila maculata. Heath family.
flowers. White or pinkish, waxy with corolla of five concave, rounded, spreading petals; ten stamens and a short, conical style with round stigma. The stem or stalk creeps along the surface of the ground or just beneath it, sending up branches a few inches high.
leaves. Thick, smooth, dark green, mottled with white along the veins, lance-shaped with distant teeth along the margins and arranged in pairs and in whorls on the reddish stalk.
habitat and season. In dry woods; June to August; from Maine and Ontario to Minnesota, Georgia and Mississippi.
Yarrow or Milfoil: Achillea Millefolium. Composite family.
flowers. From four to six, grayish-white ray-florets around a tiny head of yellowish or brownish disk-florets seated in a light green cup. These little flower heads are in small, close groups which in turn are gathered into one or more large, flat-topped, terminal clusters, one to two feet high.
leaves. Long, narrow, deeply cut, and each part again cut into a fine fringe. Both leaves and flowers are aromatic.
habitat and season. Waste land, roadsides and dry fields; June to November; throughout North America.